Archive for October, 2010


Struktur Transistor

BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor) tersusun atas tiga material semikonduktor terdoping yang dipisahkan oleh dua sambungan pn. Ketiga material semikonduktor tersebut dikenal dalam BJT sebagai emitter, base dan kolektor (Gambar 1). Daerah base merupakan semikonduktor dengan sedikit doping dan sangat tipis bila dibandingkan dengan emitter (doping paling banyak) maupun kolektor (semikonduktor berdoping sedang). Karena strukturnya fisiknya yang seperti itu, terdapat dua jenis BJT. Tipe pertama terdiri dari dua daerah n yang dipisahkan oleh daerah p (npn), dan tipe lainnya terdiri dari dua daerah p yang dipisahkan oleh daerah n (pnp). Sambungan pn yang menghubungkan daerah base dan emitter dikenal sebagai sambungan base-emiter (base-emitter junction), sedangkan sambungan pn yang menghubungkan daerah base dan kolektor dikenal sebagai sambungan base-kolektor (base-collector junction). (more…)


October 26, 2010 at 2:05 am 1 comment


Programmable logic controller (PLC) adalah suatu system control yang terdiri dari peralatan elektronik yang digunakan untuk mengontrol proses tertentu. PLC merupakan bagian system control yang terhubung dengan komponen control seperti switch, solenoid, dan sensor-sensor lainnya. PLC yang merupakan bagian control system terhubung langsung dengan proses control yang dilakukan sesuai dengan program yang ada pada memori. PLC akan menerima data sinyal masukan, memprosesnya dan menghasilkan keluaran sebagai data keluarannya. (more…)

October 25, 2010 at 1:03 am 2 comments

Common Linear Models Used in Model Predictive Control

In the first instance this article will make no apologies for giving just a summary statement about models. The art of modelling and the subtle differences between ARX, ARMA, and ARMAX models to name just a few is not a topic that is central to the theme of this article and is a subject covered extensively elsewhere. However, the reader should be aware that the selection of the model is the most important part of an MPC design. Unexpectedly poor performance of an MPC controller will often be due to poor modelling assumptions. We will assume that the model is given and hence the purpose of this chapter is solely to show that different model types can be used in an MPC framework. How one can modify models to achieve benefits in an MPC design will be considered in later chapters.

You can use pretty much any model you like in an MPC strategy; however, if the model is nonlinear, then the implied optimisation may be nontrivial and moreover may not even converge. We will concentrate only on linear models and allow that any nonlinearity is mild and hence can be dealt with well enough by assuming model uncertainty and some gain scheduling of control laws. One article is not enough to cover the linear and the nonlinear case properly. (more…)

October 24, 2010 at 5:47 pm Leave a comment


Radar is a remote-sensing system that is widely used for surveillance, tracking, and imaging applications, for both civilian and military needs. In this chapter, we focus attention on future possibilities of radar with particular emphasis on the notion of cognition. As an illustrative case study along the way, we consider the radar surveillance problem. (more…)

October 23, 2010 at 8:42 pm 2 comments

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